The Middle Ground

A GUIDE TO DEAL TERMS IN PLAIN ENGLISH


+ Introduction

+ Purchase and Sale

+ Closing

+ Representations & Warranties - Seller

+ Representations & Warranties - Buyer

+ Covenants

+ Conditions to Closing

+ Indemnification

+ Termination

+ Miscellaneous

Exclusive Remedies


Classification: Moderately Material
Section: Indemnification
Negotiation Time: Minimal to Moderate
Transaction Costs: Insignificant to Intermediate
Major Impact: Risk Management


What is This? Buyers and sellers usually spend significant time agreeing on an indemnification scheme, so they tend to want most claims for breaches of the Agreement to be governed by indemnification. This section identifies the claims that must be pursued through indemnification and those that are exempt from that limitation.

The Middle Ground: Subject to the equitable remedies provided for in the Agreement, this provision limits the parties’ available remedies in the event one of them breaches the Agreement, except for situations involving fraud, criminal activity, or intentional misconduct. More specifically, if a breach occurs that is not due to one of the three listed exceptions and for which an equitable remedy is not available, the non-breaching party’s only option is to make an indemnification claim (if the parties have chosen to make all covenants and other terms subject to indemnification in addition to the representations and warranties).

Purpose: This restriction is intended to limit the parties’ risk by making indemnification the sole avenue for resolving most claims related to the Agreement. In fact, this term is necessary if indemnification is intended to be the Agreement’s main enforcement mechanism, because without it the parties could simply bypass the indemnification process by filing a lawsuit.

Buyer Preference: Being a fairly standard provision, most buyers accept it as part of the Agreement and, consequently, spend a considerable amount of time negotiating their indemnification rights. However, more aggressive buyers may argue for an alternate provision that allows for indemnification in addition to the usual legal and equitable remedies.

Seller Preference: The Seller wants the exceptions included in this provision to be as narrow as possible since it is typically the party against whom a complaint is being made. In particular, the definition of fraud varies from state to state and may not be as limiting as the Seller intends it to be. To prevent an unwelcome surprise, the Seller (and/or its attorney) must be aware of the legal bounds of fraud, criminal activity, and intentional misconduct in the state whose law governs the Agreement.

Differences in a Stock Sale Transaction Structure: None.


DISCUSSION

We want The Middle Ground to be an ongoing dialogue for and resource to the lower middle market M&A community. The outline above is generally applicable, but there is always specific case law and nuance around certain industries that can be useful in helping buyers and sellers come together. If you are a lawyer or deal professional, we encourage you to add your perspective below.