The Middle Ground


+ Introduction

+ Purchase and Sale

+ Closing

+ Representations & Warranties - Seller

+ Representations & Warranties - Buyer

+ Covenants

+ Conditions to Closing

+ Indemnification

+ Termination

+ Miscellaneous


Classification: Moderately Material
Section: Covenants
Negotiation Time: Minimal
Transaction Costs: Insignificant to Intermediate
Major Impact: Deal Value and Risk Management

What is This? All businesses possess information that is beneficial to them because it is not known by the public (e.g. customer lists, trade secrets, etc.). Prior to the Closing, the Seller protects that information by requiring the Buyer to keep non-public information confidential. Post-Closing, the Buyer wants to place a similar confidentiality requirement on the Seller, and this covenant is used to accomplish that goal.

The Middle Ground: This covenant requires the Seller, its Affiliates, and its Representatives to use their reasonable best efforts post-Closing to keep confidential all information about the Business that is not otherwise publicly available. It also requires the Seller to take certain precautions if it is required by law to disclose the information, such as only providing information it is legally required to provide (as advised by legal counsel) and taking steps to limit who is able to access the confidential information that is disclosed.

Purpose: This covenant is intended to protect the value of the Business after the transfer of ownership has occurred by protecting the confidential information of the Business. Therefore, it does play a part in reducing the Buyer’s risk and protecting the value of the deal from the Buyer’s perspective. It is worth a moderate amount of attention because almost all businesses will have some information that, if publicly disclosed, would hinder its ability to compete. Thus, the ability to protect that information will be a material concern for the Buyer once it takes ownership of the Business.

Buyer Preference: The Buyer wants to pay close attention to the definitions of Affiliates and Representatives to ensure that everyone who has access to the information sought to be protected has a duty of confidentiality with regard to that information. If the sale was initially conducted by auction, expansive definitions of Affiliates and Representatives may not adequately protect the Buyer’s risk, so the Buyer can have the Seller assign the confidentiality agreements signed by the other auction participants to protect the Business’s sensitive information.

Seller Preference: The Seller may want to include language indicating that the Buyer’s confidentiality obligations (often originating in the Letter of Intent) apply to information disclosed pursuant to the Agreement and that the Buyer’s confidentiality obligations survive termination of the Agreement. Essentially, such language provides protection for the Seller if the deal does not go through.

Differences in a Stock Sale Transaction Structure: None.


We want The Middle Ground to be an ongoing dialogue for and resource to the lower middle market M&A community. The outline above is generally applicable, but there is always specific case law and nuance around certain industries that can be useful in helping buyers and sellers come together. If you are a lawyer or deal professional, we encourage you to add your perspective below.